Available online: 2015-12-22
/ pages 3-6
Desde hace varios años la Revista Chapingo, Serie Ciencias Forestales y del Ambiente, ha tenido a bien invitarme para escribir el editorial de cada número, labor que ha resultado para mí de grata distinción y particular orgullo. Desde entonces he tenido la oportunidad de ser testigo del crecimiento y evolución de esta valiosa publicación, como fue el caso de su inclusión en ISI Thomson, JCR y en el índice de revistas de excelencia del Conacyt. Hoy la revista, en su constante desarrollo, da un paso más: el de la elaboración del editorial científico, un editorial que se enfocará a un tema en particular cada número y que será escrito por un especialista.
Traditional management units, the base of community conservation in Morelos, Mexico
Las unidades de manejo tradicional, base de la conservación comunitaria en Morelos, México
Available online: 2015-11-10
/ pages 7-27
The traditional management units (TMU) went through a participative analysis in the Protected Natural Area, Corredor Biológico Chichinautzin, Morelos, incorporating the forms of appropriation in ethnobotanical variables on conservation in order to generate a value index of cultural importance (VICI) and thus elaborate proposals for citizens. Two organizational forms were found: the traditional organization which encourages independence before external sociopolitical interests, and the community organization which corresponds to the legal bureaucratic authority that regulates foreign trade. The analyzed TMUs were: agriculture, livestock, forests, lowland deciduous forests (LDF) and traditional fruit orchards (TFO). According to the VICI, Pinus montezumae prevail in the forests with 120 %, Erythrina americana Zompantle prevail in the LDF with 105 %, and Prunus persica peach tree prevail in the TFO with 67 %. According to informant, 75, 63 and 55 % of the species present a high availability in the forests, LDF, and TFO, respectively. The diagnosis helped connect the ethnobotanical variables of the conservation state and the appropriation limitations with participatory proposals, such as: the establishment of plots of land to validate the cornfields, the implementation of drylots for livestock, and the promotion of training programs to recuperate the transmission and provision of feedback of local knowledge of the TMU.
Forest species in the recovery of soils contaminated with copper due to mining activities
Especies forestales para la recuperación de suelos contaminados con cobre debido a actividades mineras
Available online: 2015-12-09
/ pages 29–43
Mining is the most important economic activity in Chile; causing significant degradation of the environment in the arid regions. The Coquimbo Region has suffered serious soil and water pollution because of heavy metals from mining, particularly copper. Implementation of measures that help to minimize the environmental impact of mining tailings requires knowledge about the adaptability of vegetative species to degraded soil conditions. Our objective was to determine and compare the phytostabilization abilities of native and exotic shrub species in areas extremely damaged by mining activities in the Coquimbo Region. The survival rates, growth levels, and canopy development of 20 species were evaluated by two experiments. The Cu quantity in stems and leaves and at three soil depths was measured. Our results indicated that Acacia saligna is the best species in accumulating heavy metals (average of 34.8 ppm in leaves and 12.3 ppm in stems, both for non-fertilized soils), while demonstrating average survival rates over 80 %. This study concludes that A. saligna is the best species for phytostabilization activities in mine tailings of the Coquimbo Region.
Profitability analysis for natural rubber (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.) production in Oaxaca, Mexico.
Análisis de la rentabilidad en la producción de hule (Hevea brasiliensis Muell.Arg.) en Oaxaca, México.
Available online: 2015-12-08
/ pages 45–58
El cultivo del hule ha sido una buena alternativa de producción para las regiones del trópico húmedo. Este trabajo presenta los resultados de la estimación de costos de producción y formula algunos indicadores de rentabilidad del norte del estado de Oaxaca. Se definieron tres unidades representativas de producción (URP) de 2.5, 5 y 16 ha; mismas que se trabajaron en paneles. La metodología empleada se apegó a la establecida por la Asociación Americana de Economía Agrícola. Los resultados muestran que el costo económico por URP asciende a $13.66, $10.95 y $11.65, el financiero a $7.52, $6.98 y $9.60, y el flujo de efectivo a $18.94, $13.02 y $11.99 por kilogramo de hule. Los costos de producción evaluados revelan que las unidades de producción con características similares a las URP de 2.5 y 16 ha poseen viabilidad económica limitada; por lo anterior, deben integrar innovaciones técnicas que permitan reducir costos, aumentar rendimientos, mejorar calidad del producto y en algunos casos renovar plantaciones.
Extraction and characterization of Agave salmiana Otto ex Salm-Dyck fructans
Extracción y caracterización de fructanos de Agave salmiana Otto ex Salm-Dyck
Available online: 2015-12-15
/ pages 59–72
Fructans are fructose polymers with major applications in the industry of functional food. Even though fructans from Agave angustifolia spp. tequilana are already being industrially produced and are beginning to gain some demand in the USA, for their extraction pineapple or the heart of the maguey (stem and leaf bases) with different stages of ripeness is still used, which affects the quality and results in more expensive production processes. This work describes an alternative method for the extraction of fructans from Agave salmiana stems, resulting in simpler processes and facilitates a natural or organic collection. The absolute and relative yields of the fructan concentrate (FC) refer both to the stem and to the head of the maguey, as well as their quality through the high performance liquid chromatographic analysis (HPLC). The yield of FC (95 % DM dry material) from fresh stems was 21 % and almost 80 % from dry stems. The humidity free FC is comprised of about 80 % fructans and the rest by trisaccharides (around 9.5 %), ashes (5 %), sucrose (1 %) and sapogenins (0.85 %); glucose and fructose quantities were not detectable (< 0.002 %).
Mexican oaks as a potential non-timber resource for Kombucha beverages
Encinos mexicanos, un recurso no maderable con potencial para elaborar bebidas tipo Kombucha
Available online: 2015-12-23
/ pages 73-86
Oaks (Quercus spp.) are some of the world’s most important and abundant trees in nearly all temperate forests of the northern hemisphere. There are two diversity centers for this genus: one is in Southeast Asia, and the other is in Mexico. Studies on the use of oak have mainly highlighted its timber applications. However, its non-timber value is still unappreciated. Ethnobotanical tradition shows infusions from Quercus leaves, alone or in combination with other plants, which have anticarcinogenic effects in gastric cancer patients. Sensorial studies on oak herbal infusions have shown that a higher phenolic content decreases their acceptability. Therefore, a significant alternative for encouraging use of herbal teas is fermentation with the Kombucha culture (black tea fungus). Kombucha drink is reported as a potential health promoter. It is a slightly acidic beverage from fermentation of sweetened black tea with Kombucha consortium, which consists mainly of acetic acid bacteria and yeasts. The phenolic composition and content gradually changes over fermentation time, producing a beverage rich in antioxidants. Metabolic conversion of polyphenols may be due to glucuronidation of original flavonoid compounds. This process enhances the bioavailability of phytochemicals, which include a wide range of bioactive ellagitannins and flavonoids, in oaks.
Variation in the diet composition of the white tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in the Tehuacán-Cuicatlán Biosphere Reserve
Variación de la composición de la dieta del venado cola blanca (Odocoileus virginianus) en la Reserva de la Biosfera Tehuacán-Cuicatlán
Available online: 2015-12-24
/ pages 87-98
The objective of this study was to determine the variation in the botanical composition of the diet of white tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus in the Tehuacán-Cuicatlán Biosphere Reserve (RBTC) in Mexico. The species consumed were identified through the microhistological analysis of the epidermis in fresh excreta. The sampling was done in the humid and dry seasons of 2011 to 2013 in San Gabriel Casa Blanca dominated by the tropical dry forest (TDF) and crasicaule shrubland, and in San Pedro Chicozapotes dominated by TDF; both locations in the state of Oaxaca. The annual diet consisted of 83 species from 36 families; 13 species represented more than 50 % of the diet. The tender leaves and stems of tree and herbal species were the most frequently consumed. The composition of the diet did not differ (P > 0.05) between yearly seasons, but they did differ between study locations. The plant compositions consumed by the deer was similar to what was reported in other TDF. The results of this study help us understand the ecological strategies of foraging of the herbivores in the TDF, and could have certain relevance in the management units for wildlife conservation (UMAs) in the RBTC and in neighboring areas.
Germination and dormancy-breaking of Daphne giraldii Nitsche (Thymelaeaceae) seeds from northwestern China
Germinación y ruptura de latencia en semillas de Daphne giraldii Nitsche (Thymelaeaceae) provenientes del noroeste de China
Available online: 2015-12-24
/ pages 99-113
Daphne giraldii Nitsche (Thymelaeaceae) is a perennial evergreen shrub that is widely used in the ornamental plant and pharmaceutical industries in China. It exhibits dormancy, which delays and reduces germination. This study determined the effects of chemical treatment, stratification and burial treatment for overcoming the seed dormancy of D. giraldii. Results showed that chemical pre-treatment was less effective in breaking dormancy. The best germination percentage (GP) was 52.33 %, a germination rate (GR) of 1.19 only observed after 70 d of seed stratification at 5 °C treatment, indicating that the germination behavior of D. giraldii was not significantly affected by stratification. The physiological dormancy of D. giraldii seeds was alleviated during burial. Seeds buried at 100 cm depth for 170 days showed the highest germination success with GP of 86.5 % and GR of 10.11, which was the most effective treatment to alleviate seed dormancy. This information may be useful to restore and conserve other shrubs grown in Northwestern China and elucidate their survival under similar extreme environments.