Revista Chapingo Serie Ciencias Forestales y del Ambiente
Universidad Autónoma Chapingo
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Revista Chapingo Serie Ciencias Forestales y del Ambiente
Volume XXIII, issue 3, September - December 2017


Insectistatic and insecticide activity of Beauveria bassiana in Bradysia impatiens (Diptera: Sciaridae) Scientific article
Actividad insecticida e insectistática de Beauveria bassiana en Bradysia impatiens (Diptera: Sciaridae)
Víctor H. Marín-Cruz; Silvia Rodríguez-Navarro; Juan E. Barranco-Florido; David Cibrián-Tovar
Received: 2016-10-03
Accepted: 2017-05-18
Available online: 2017-07-01 / pages -

  • Introduction: Bradysia impatiens causes significant losses in nurseries and greenhouses in Mexico. Objective: The insecticidal and insectistatic effect of Beauveria bassiana was evaluated on B. impatiens. Materials and methods: The insecticidal and insectistatic effect of conidia (107 conidia·mL-1), enzymes (10 000 ppm), metabolites (10 000 ppm) and crude extract of B. bassiana were evaluated at 8 and 20 days. Corrected mortality data of larvae and pupae of B. impatiens and relative emergence of adults, transformed with the arcsine function, in an analysis of variance and comparison of Tukey's means (P < 0.05). Results and discussion: At day 8, conidia had the highest insecticidal activity with 31.1 % of corrected mortality, and zero enzymes activity. At 20 days, treatments of metabolites and conidia had the greatest effect on mortality, 47.5 and 42.1 %, respectively. These treatments had the highest insectistatic activity. The emergence of adults at 20 days was lower with conidia (6 %), while with the enzymes it was 100 %. Metabolites caused that 65 % of adults had malformations. Conclusions: Metabolites and conidia of B. bassiana could be used for the control of larvae and pupae of B. impatiens.

Willingness to pay for improvements in wastewater treatment: application of the contingent valuation method in Puno, Peru Scientific article
Disponibilidad a pagar por el mejoramiento en el tratamiento de aguas residuales: aplicación del método de valoración contingente en Puno, Perú
Juan Walter Tudela-Mamani
Received: 2016-11-09
Accepted: 2017-05-30
Available online: 2017-07-01 / pages -

  • Introduction: The collapse of the "El Espinar" Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) in Puno, Peru, has resulted in much of the wastewater being discharged into Lake Titicaca’s Inner Bay, generating pollution and loss of well-being in the population.  Objective: To estimate the willingness to pay (WTP) for improvements in the wastewater treatment system in Puno, Peru.  Materials and methods: WTP was estimated through data obtained in a survey of 393 heads-of-household. The contingent valuation method’s linear and logarithmic models, with referendum and double-bounded questions, were used. Results and discussion: A mean WTP of 4.38 PEN (1.46 USD) per household was estimated. WTP was affected by socioeconomic variables related to the household budget, educational level and geographical location of the home. Residents of the southern zone, the main area affected by the pollution caused by the wastewater discharge, have higher WTP than those living in the city’s central and northern areas.  Conclusion: Despite the belief in the low-payment culture, users are willing to pay if the benefits are obvious. With respect to the models used, the double-bounded model had greater theoretical consistency of results.

Model of selection and evaluation for graduate applicants in forest sciences Scientific article
Modelo de selección y evaluación de aspirantes a un posgrado en ciencias forestales
Francisco J. Zamudio-Sánchez; José Luis Romo-Lozano; Amparo Borja-de la Rosa; Gladys Martínez-Gómez; Adriana Ávalos-Vargas
Received: 2016-12-22
Accepted: 2017-06-07
Available online: 2017-07-01 / pages 353-367

  • Introduction: The admission process of students to a postgraduate program is very important for the improvement of indicators of greater importance in the quality of the program. The problem is the large amount of information requested that is not always considered objectively for the selection of applicants with the desired profile. Objective: Analyze evaluation models to select postgraduate applicants and, with a metric, choose the most compatible model. Materials and methods: We used information from 19 applicants for the Master’s program in Forest Sciences of the Universidad Autónoma Chapingo. We applied subjective methods of multi-criteria analysis in the phase of consideration of the criteria (3) and sub-criteria (8): point allocation method and analytical hierarchical process. Values ​​were aggregated using the TOPSIS method and the weighted sum method. The most compatible weighting-aggregation combination was determined with Pareto order. Results and discussion: The combination of the weighted sum method and analytical hierarchical process showed a lower average distance to the order of the rest of the combinations and, consequently, generated a selection of applicants more compatible with the selection criteria. Conclusion: Multi-criteria methods represent a good option to properly consider the amount of information generated in a selection process.

In vitro mycelial growth of wild edible mushrooms from the central Mexican highlands Scientific article
Crecimiento miceliar in vitro de hongos comestibles silvestres de alta montaña en el centro de México
César Díaz-Talamantes; Cristina Burrola-Aguilar; Xóchitl Aguilar-Miguel; Gerardo Mata
Received: 2016-12-18
Accepted: 2017-07-14
Available online: 2017-07-30 / pages 369-383

  • Introduction: Wild edible mushrooms are considered functional foods of high culinary value; their demand has increased in recent years.
    Objective: The mycelial growth of Bovista aestivalis, Infundibulicybe squamulosa, I. gibba, Gymnopus dryophilus and Lycoperdon perlatum was evaluated to identify species susceptible to culture.
    Materials and methods: Mycelial growth rate (GR) and biomass were determined at 18 and 25 °C in solid and liquid culture media and in seed supplemented with Pinus patula needles. Metabolic activity (Ma) was quantified in the supplemented seed using the fluorescein diacetate (FDA) technique.
    Results and discussion: Gymnopus dryophilus and L. perlatum showed better mycelial development. In solid medium, the optimal treatment for both species was maize agar at 18 ° C. The G. dryophilus GR was 2.2 mm·d-1 with 70 mg biomass; the L. perlatum GR was 2.0 mm·d-1 with 30 mg biomass. In liquid culture, the G. dryophilus GR was 0.11 g·d-1 and for L. perlatum it was 0.12 g·d-1. In supplemented sorghum, G. dryophilus had Ma of 61.5 µg of FDA·g-1 of substrate and a GR of 1.18 mm·d-1; L. perlatum recorded 23.6 µg of FDA·g-1 and a GR of 0.68 mm·d-1. 
    Conclusion: The G. dryophilus strain is susceptible to culture.

Extrusion of foamed wood-plastic composites. Part I: Physical and morphological characterization Scientific article
Extrusión de compuestos madera plástico espumados. Parte I: Caracterización física y morfológica
Pablo A. Moreno-Pérez; Aldo Ballerini; William Gacitúa; Denis Rodrigue
Received: 2016-09-26
Accepted: 2017-07-18
Available online: 2017-07-30 / pages 385-400

  • Introduction: The use of wood-plastic composites (WPCs) has been limited due to their low impact strength and high density compared to natural wood. Objective: To characterize the cellular morphology and density of WPCs prepared with virgin and recycled polyethylene, and Pinus radiata wood. Materials and methods: The polymer and the foamed WPCs were manufactured by an extrusion process. The virgin and recycled high-density polyethylene was mixed separately with P. radiata wood. The plastic/wood ratios were 80/20 and 70/30, with an endothermic foaming agent (Hydrocerol 1700 at 1 and 3 %), a coupling agent (Licocene 4351), and a lubricating agent (Licolub H12) added. Results and discussion: The density of virgin polymer, with 1 and 3 % foaming agent, was reduced by 39 and 20 %, respectively, but in the recycled polymer the reduction was 18 and 23 %, respectively. In the foamed WPCs, the reduction was less than 10 %. The foamed composites had smaller bubble diameter and higher cell density. The void fraction was higher in the virgin polymer at 3 % foaming. Conclusion: The use of a foaming agent gave better physical properties to the composites.

Quality and time of biosolid compost when varying ratios and weight of substrates Scientific article
Calidad y tiempo de compostaje de biosólidos al variar las proporciones y pesos de los sustratos
Beatriz Juárez-Robles; Isaías de la Rosa-Gómez; Ma. del Consuelo Mañon-Salas; Ma. del Consuelo Hernández-Berriel; Rocío Vaca-Paulín; Jorge Lugo-de la Fuente
Received: 2016-12-18
Accepted: 2017-07-24
Available online: 2017-07-30 / pages 401-410

  • Introduction: Biosolids generated in the treatment of wastewater are an environmental problem due to their inadequate handling and disposal.
    Objective: To know the effects when varying substrate ratios and pile weight on quality and time of biosolid compost.
    Materials and Methods: The mixture of biosolids (BS) with clay soil (CS) and equine degraded manure (DM) was evaluated in the following ratios: 70:30:00, 65:30:05, 60:30:10 and 50:30:20 to determine the optimum ratio in piles of 250 kg and evaluate it in 500 and 2 000 kg. The parameters of quality were temperature, Ph, humidity, organic matter (OM), total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), C/N ratio, K/Na ratio and phosphorus (P). 
    Results and Discussion: the ratio 65:30:05 had higher temperature (63.8 °C) and lower composting time (21 days). Significant differences (P < 0.05) were found in the parameters of quality with respect to the substrates and pile weight. The treatments of 250 kg had the shortest processing time (28 days) with higher OM, TKN, C/N and P.
    Conclusion: The DM and CS favor BS composting by reducing the process to a maximum of 32 days. The ratio 65:30:05 in 250 kg increases the agronomic quality of the compost.

Ectomycorrhizal ecology, biotechnology and taxonomy for the conservation and use of Abies religiosa in temperate areas of Mexico Artículos de revisión
Ecología, biotecnología y taxonomía de ectomicorriza para la conservación y aprovechamiento de Abies religiosa en zonas templadas de México
Iván Oros-Ortega; Antonio Andrade-Torres; Luis A. Lara-Pérez; Rubén F. Guzmán-Olmos; Fernando Casanova-Lugo; Luis A. Sáenz-Carbonell; Iván Córdova-Lara
Received: 2016-11-09
Accepted: 2017-07-24
Available online: 2017-08-04 / pages 411-426

  • Endemic populations of Abies religiosa (fir, oyamel) have great economic, ecological and social importance; in addition, they form different interactions with edaphic microorganisms, mainly with ectomycorrhizal fungi. Currently, isolated populations (i. e. fir) are threatened by deforestation, agricultural expansion and global warming; therefore, it is urgent to understand the ecological and evolutionary interactions with ectomycorrhizal fungi. The objective of the present research was to analyze the use of molecular ecology, taxonomy and biology of ectomycorrhizal fungi to understand the role that these fungi play in A. religiosa trees in Mexico. Areas of research are presented as well as the main information gaps in the morphological/molecular characterization, taxonomy and evolution of the ectomycorrhizal symbiosis in A. religiosa. For the above, we collected information of 108 taxa of potentially ectomycorrhizal fungi obtained from different fir populations. The taxa with high potential to inoculate A. religiosa are Sebacina dimitica, Clavulina cf. cinerea, Membranomyces sp., Thelephoraceae, Russula spp., Ramaria spp., Lactarius spp. e Inocybe spp. Finally, we discuss issues that remain unresolved to determine their potential for use, management and conservation of A. religiosa in temperate areas of Mexico. This problem can be solved by combining molecular tools with the morphological and histological description of ectomycorrhizal morphotypes. In addition, methodologies are required to standardize results to come to more robust conclusions about mycorrhizal interactions.

Molecular characterization using ISSR primers of Magnolia mexicana DC. from two regions in Zongolica, Veracruz, Mexico Scientific article
Caracterización molecular mediante iniciadores ISSR de Magnolia mexicana DC. de dos regiones de Zongolica, Veracruz, México
Jessica M. Medrano-Hernández1; José L. Rodríguez de la O; Benito Reyes-Trejo; Margarita Gisela Peña-Ortega
Received: 2017-03-01
Accepted: 2017-07-31
Available online: 2017-08-02 / pages 427-436

  • Introduction: Magnolia mexicana DC. is a threatened species according to NOM-059-SEMARNAT-2010, a situation attributed to the fragmentation and destruction of its habitat. There are no studies on the genetic diversity of M. mexicana, even though it is endemic to our country.
    Objective: To evaluate genetic variability in two M. mexicana populations using ISSR molecular markers.
    Materials and methods: The collections come from Amatitla and Zapotla in Zongolica, Veracruz. The DNA was extracted from the young leaves. A total of 55 ISSR primers were tested; the 10 that produced the highest number of polymorphic bands were selected and amplified by PCR.
    Results and discussion: The ISSR primers showed 86 % polymorphism. Cluster analysis, using Ward's minimum variance method, was able to separate the collections by their geographical origin. Analysis of molecular variance showed that the greatest variability (90.88 %) is found within each population. The Shannon-Weaver diversity index was 0.47 and 0.41 for Amatitla and Zapotla, respectively.
    Conclusion: The M. mexicana populations have not undergone changes in their genetic structure; there is no evidence at genetic level of alterations caused by population reduction or habitat fragmentation.

SiBiFor: Sistema Biométrico Forestal para el manejo de los bosques de México  Artículos por invitación
SiBiFor: Sistema Biométrico Forestal para el manejo de los bosques de México
Benedicto Vargas-Larreta; José Javier Corral-Rivas; Oscar A. Aguirre-Calderón; Jorge O. López-Martínez; Héctor M. de los Santos-Posadas; Francisco J. Zamudio-Sánchez; Eduardo J. Treviño-Garza; Martín Martínez-Salvador; Cristóbal G. Aguirre-Calderón
Received: 2017-06-07
Accepted: 2017-08-03
Available online: 2017-08-04 / pages 437-455

  • Introduction: Forest biometric systems are the most widely used analytical tools for analysis of forest growth and yield. Objective: To present a new biometric system for temperate and tropical Mexican forests. Materials and methods: The study area included the states of Chihuahua, Guerrero, Jalisco, Oaxaca, Michoacán, Puebla, State of Mexico, Hidalgo, Tlaxcala, Veracruz and Quintana Roo. Field data collection was done by using destructive and non-destructive sampling in each Regional Forest Management Unit (RFMU) in the states. The methodology generated equation systems for the estimation of individual-tree attributes that are additive between components, scalable at total- tree level and consistent throughout the country’s different forest conditions.Results and discussion: The Forest Biometric System (SiBiFor for its initials in Spanish) consists of more than 6 000 new equations for 97 tree species in temperate and tropical forests. SiBiFor contains 2 917 volume, 2 868 volume-taper, 341 site index and 288 diameter growth equations. Conclusion: The developed equations will improve the management of the country’s forest ecosystems, which will contribute to their sustainability. 

Landscape pattern analysis of the urban forest and green network structure in the Pudong district of Shanghai, China Scientific article
Análisis del patrón del paisaje del bosque urbano y la estructura de la red ecológica en el distrito de Pudong en Shanghái, China
Jianan Wang; Hui Liu; Wu Zemin; Yingying Li
Received: 2016-12-18
Accepted: 2017-07-11
Available online: 2017-08-31 / pages 457-473

  • Introduction: Urbanization has altered the natural landscape in the world. The urban expansion has been occurring more rapidly than ever before in China. Objective: To analyze the urban forest landscape pattern and ecological network structure in the Pudong district in Shanghai, China.Materials and methods: The study area covers 553 km2, including 253 km2 of built-up area. Using Landsat 7 2008TM, 2007 Spot Image, Google Earth and city maps, the structural characteristics were analyzed. The landscape patterns of the urban forest and green network structure were interpreted using ArcGIS Software.Results and discussion: The area of the urban forest patches (>900 m2) and the built-up area in the district were 5.15 % and 5.78 % respectively. The area of the green corridor network was 80.27 km2 while the density was 1.99 km·km-2. The linkage of the green network was 1.30, circuitry was 0.19 and connectivity 0.47. The tree canopy coverage was 7.02 % in the entire study area, and 10.27 % in the built-up area. The tree canopy coverage can reach to 8.68 % ~ 9.79 % in the total study area, and 11.49 % ~ 12.3 % in the built-up area.Conclusion: The green network has been constructed, but it was not well designed, so it is necessary to improve its structure. The existing trees cannot modify the forest environment for all the urban forest. Planting more trees is feasible to increase the tree canopy coverage.