Ingeniería Agrícola y Biosistemas Volume 2, issue 1, January - June 2010 Electronic ISSN: 2007-4026
Print ISSN: 2007-3925
Versión en español



Ingeniería Agrícola y Biosistemas
Volume 2, issue 1, January - June 2010


Effect of maize (Zea mays L.) grain hardness on yield and quality of tortilla

Efecto de la dureza del grano de maíz (Zea mays L.) sobre el rendimiento y calidad de la tortilla

Yolanda Salinas-Moreno; Luis Aguilar-Modesto

Received: 2010-08-16

Accepted: 2010-10-21

Available online: 2010-12-15 / pages 5-11

  • Maize is the most important cereal in the diet of Mexican people. Maize is consumed mainly as tortilla, which can be produced from fresh masa or nixtamalized maize flour. The objectives of the present work were to establish the effect of maize grain hardness on masa and tortilla yields as well as its relationship with tortilla texture and the stability of this tortilla characteristic during the storage. There were used 27 maize samples obtained in the states of Puebla and Tlaxcala that were grouped according to their grain hardness. Physical, chemical and nixtamalization variables were evaluated in the samples. The tortilla quality during the storage was determined in function of texture and moisture. The maize samples with hard endosperm presented higher test weight and lower floatation index and thousand weight values than the maize samples with medium and soft endosperm. Grain hardness affected moisture content of tortilla and in this way tortilla yield, but not the tortilla texture. The favorable tortilla texture characteristics were lost after being storage for 24 h. To obtain an index yield of tortilla/maize ≥1.5, the tortilla moisture has to range from 45 to 46 %. Maize with soft to medium hardness grain let to have tortillas with these moisture requirements.

Agrometeorological services for cattle environmental conditions evaluation

Vigilancia agrometeorológica de condiciones ambientales para ganado vacuno

Ismabel María Domínguez-Hurtado; Aldo Saturnino Moya-Álvarez; Alejandro Estrada-Moreno

Received: 2010-06-07

Accepted: 2010-10-21

Available online: 2010-12-15 / pages 13-19

  • A new methodology for monitoring agrometeorological conditions of cattle exploitation is described by integrating the output of global models for weather forecasting and data from surface weather stations, adjusted to the characteristics of the Cuban archipelago. Temperature and humidity index (THI), and also animal thermal ranges were adopted as criteria for evaluation of animals of tropical and European races. A fully automated system for capturing, processing and distribution of information to interested entities is achieved.

Modified atmospheres and refrigeration in sapote mamey [Pouteria sapota (Jacq.) H. E. Moore & Stearn] fruits

Atmósferas modificadas y refrigeración en frutos de zapote mamey [Pouteria sapota (Jacq.) H. E. Moore & Stearn]

Esteban Pachuqueño-Campos; Irán Alia-Tejacal; Gloria Alicia Pérez-Arias; María Andrade-Rodríguez; Salvador Valle-Guadarrama; Silvia Bautista-Baños; Arturo Martínez-Morales; Juan Manuel Villarreal-Fuentes; José Nelson Pérez-Quintanilla

Received: 2010-08-26

Accepted: 2010-11-01

Available online: 2010-12-15 / pages 21-27

  • Sapote mamey fruits in physiological maturity were harvested and covered with film plastic, another group fruits were maintained without plastic film; both fruit lots were allocated in refrigeration at 10 ºC for 7, 14, or 21 d. At the end of storage periods, fruits were ripened at laboratory conditions (20 ºC; 60 % HR). Respiration and ethylene production were significantly higher when fruits were maintained without plastic film in storage, and highest values were detected after 21 d in this condition. Weight loss was lesser in fruits covered with plastic film. Also, firmness, color and total sugars were retarded in fruits with plastic film. Fruits without plastic film ripen in five days. Plastic film and refrigeration at 10 ºC constitute an alternative with potential to handle fruits of sapote mamey for 21 d.

Integrated water resources management to reduce the vulnerability to land sliding and flooding in the sierra madre of Chiapas watersheds

Gestión integral de recursos hídricos para reducir la vulnerabilidad a deslizamientos e inundaciones en las cuencas de la sierra madre de Chiapas

José Luis L. Arellano-Monterrosas

Received: 2010-04-06

Accepted: 2010-11-10

Available online: 2010-12-15 / pages 23-37

  • In this research is analyzed the pertinence of applying the Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) methodology in order to reduce the vulnerability to land sliding and flooding in the Sierra Madre of Chiapas watersheds in Mexico. The costeral Chiapas watersheds are characterized by their pronounced topography, presence of extreme rainfall and poverty which make them very vulnerable to extreme hydrometeorological events. In the last years, these events have occurred with more frequency and intensity in the region. In this way, the hydrology-forestry recovery practices, as the conservation and management of soil and water that are performed in each crop system and watershed parcel, allow not just the control in situ of water erosion but the storage of water in the soil and a better infiltration that improve significantly the rainfall-runoff relationship to produced land sliding and flooding to start a territorial watershed development to decrease the watershed vulnerability to these disasters.

Vermicomposting of solids removed from a screening pre-treatment of swine waste water

Vermicomposteo de sólidos removidos de un pre-tratamiento de cribado de excretas porcinas

Lina Cardoso-Vigueros; Marco Garzón-Zúñiga; Esperanza Ramírez-Camperos

Received: 2010-10-01

Accepted: 2010-11-30

Available online: 2010-12-15 / pages 39-43

  • The waste water and manure are residues produced in swine industry. The daily production of wastes in hog farming represents a considerable volume. The contamination of water swine and manure varies due to different concentrations of contaminants. With decomposition of organic matter there are present fly grubs, which spray diseases. Solid wastes provide organic matter and nutrients to the soils. Treatments of waste water swine are: solids removal by sedimentation or screen separator, dewatering by sand filters, physicochemical and anaerobic treatment. All of these procedures generate solid wastes, which have to be treated in order to stabilize them and to reduce their contaminant effects. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the vermicompost efficiency in the stabilization and reduction of contaminants in the waste solids, removed during treatment of swine waste water and to evaluate agronomic characteristics. It was selected a hog farming that raising 5,000 hogs. The effluent was conducted by gravity; the bulk solids were removed by passing water through a mesh and they were used to feed a population of worms (Eisenia, sp.). Once vermicomposting process finished, it was obtained a stabilized biosolid Class A, Excellent Type for using without restrictions.

Effect of bulking agents adition to horticultural wastes in aerobic treatments

Efecto de la adición de agentes estructurantes a residuos hortícolas en tratamientos aerobios

Fabián Robles-Martínez; Irwing M. Ramírez-Sánchez; Ana Belem Piña-Guzmán; Francisco J. Colomer-Mendoza

Received: 2010-08-16

Accepted: 2010-12-06

Available online: 2010-12-15 / pages 45-51

  • The effect of the addition of bulking agents (BA) to horticultural waste during aerobic degradation was studied. The mixture was composed of six organic wastes generated in great quantities in the Central Market of Mexico City; they were tomato, pineapple, banana, lettuce, orange and papaya fruit. These organic materials have a high content of moisture; therefore, it is necessary to add BA in order to improve their properties during aerobic composting or biodrying processes. The BA used were: a) wood shavings, b) yard waste and c) a mixture of compost with wood shavings. During the degradation process, the generation and pH of leachate, as well as temperature, moisture content and mass reduction of solid waste was measured. The results showed that the moisture content in horticultural waste can be regulated with dry bulking agents that absorb some of the leachate during the first weeks of the process, while improving pile structure thus avoiding anaerobic degradation. The best results were obtained from the treatment consisting of a mixture of compost and wood shavings as BA, which had a reduction in leachate generation of 64.6 % compared with the control sample. The reduction in dry mass basis, related to the initial total mass, averaged 89 % in all trials.